June 24, 2015, marks the 444th Foundation Day of the City of Manila. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office (PCDSPO) joins the commemoration by publishing a special webpage that examines its rich precolonial past, its evolution from a walled city to a megacity, and the significance of the Ultramar—symbol of the city the Spaniards once heralded as the Distinguished and Ever Loyal.


Manila is one of many pre-Hispanic polities throughout the islands that make up the Philippine archipelago. Sources for the pre-Hispanic polities, trade routes, and cultural influences include scholarship from Laura L. Junker’s Raiding, Trading, and Feasting and inputs from archaeology Professor Cyril Calugay of the University of the Philippines-Diliman.

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