June 24, 2015 marks the 444th Foundation Day of the City of Manila. The Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office (PCDSPO) joins the commemoration by publishing a special webpage that examines its rich pre-colonial past, its evolution from a walled city to a megacity, and the significance of the Ultramar—symbol of the city the Spaniards once heralded as the Distinguished and Ever Loyal.


Prior to the colonization of the Philippines by the Spanish crown, the islands had literate societies that enjoyed lucrative trade of goods and ideas. Know more about how pre-colonial people lived at the time through this infographic.