Visual Comparisons on Two Inaugurations

President Manuel Roxas had two inaugurations, occasions wherein he took his oath of office: one on May 28, 1946 as third and last president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, and another one, on July 4, 1946, as president of the independent Republic of the Philippines, known as the Third Republic. The photos of these two distinct events are often confused together. In order to distinguish the two events, the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office (PCDSPO) has identified distinct elements in each of the two events:

A. Location

The May 28 Inauguration Ceremony and the July 4 Independence Ceremony were held on two distinct locations.

LUNETA 1946

The May 28 event was held in front of the ruins of the Legislative Building. Seen in the first photo is the side view of the Manila City Hall, in close proximity to where the site of Legislative Building is.

(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)

On the other hand, the July 4 Independence ceremonies was held in Luneta, as evidenced by the aerial view photo of the event below, where the Rizal Monument is encircled.

(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)

B. President Manuel Roxas’ Necktie

It can be gleaned from the two events that President Roxas wore two different neckties, as evidenced by these photos.

Necktie_May28

Necktie_July4
(Photos courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)

C. Chair used and Seating arrangement

Noticeable also were the type of chairs used in the two events. In terms of seating arrangement, on the May 28 Inaugural, Vice President Elpidio Quirino and U.S. High Commissioner Paul V. McNutt flanked First Lady Trinidad de Leon Roxas. On the July 4 event, Vice President Quirino sat beside McNutt.

SeatingArrangement_May28

(Photos courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photos courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)

D. Guests

The guests present at the May 28 inaugural were not the same ones as those present in the July 4 Independence ceremonies. Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur, then the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, was invited, but only came on July 4, 1946. The same goes with U.S. Senator Millard Tydings, the co-author of the Tydings-McDuffie Law that set the date for the independence of the Philippines from the United States. He was also present in the July 4 ceremonies, but was absent on the May 28 Inaugural. Former U.S. High Commissioner and first U.S. Ambassador Paul V. McNutt was present in both events.

Guest_May28

(Photos courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photos courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)

E. Grandstand Design

The grandstand used on the May 28 inauguration featured the coat of arms of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (with the American Eagle on top), while the platform used in the Independence ceremonies of July 4, shaped like a prow of a ship, had a statue of the winged goddess of Victory on the prow, holding the Coat of Arms of the Commonwealth but without the American eagle surmounting it (the design for the coat of arms for the republic was only agreed on shortly before independence day itself).

StageDesign_May28

(Photos courtesy of Manuel Roxas Foundation and British Pathé)
(Photos courtesy of Manuel Roxas Foundation and British Pathé)

F. Medals

The design of the medals for the two events also differ. Below are the actual photos of the medals worn during the May 28 inauguration (an inaugural medal) and the July 4 independence ceremonies (independence day medal). We have also featured photos of attendees wearing the medals.

(Photos courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library)
(Photos courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library)
(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)
(Photo courtesy of the Manuel Roxas Foundation)

G. First Lady Trinidad Roxas’ dress

It is also noticeable that Mrs. Trinidad de Leon-Roxas wore two different ternos on the two events, as evidenced by the photos below.

(Photos courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library)
(Photos courtesy of the Presidential Museum and Library)

H. The Water Pitcher

Another distinguishing item is the presence of the water pitcher and an upside down cup on the podium of the Independence Grandstand on July 4. This was not present on the podium of the May 28 Inauguration.

WaterPitcher_July41

WaterPitcher_May28