This room was used by President Manuel L. Quezon as his office from 1935 – 1936. It then became the office of Secretary Jorge B. Vargas, the first Executive Secretary. It served as the Executive Secretary’s office until the Macapagal Administration. The Old Executive Secretary’s Office Gallery contains an exhibit on the era of Reform, Revolution and the First Philippine Republic (c. 1860s – 1901), during which many heroes of the Philippines had fateful encounters at Malacañan Palace, starting with the reformist liberals who were entertained here in the late 1890s and, shortly after, brutally suppressed following the Cavite Mutiny of 1872. The National hero Jose Rizal was an occasional visitor in his advocacy for reform and progress and the exhibit features a significant quantity of rare Rizaliana from the Palace collections, as well as items related to such personages as Apolinario Mabini, Felix Resurrection Hidalgo, Maximo Viola and Ferdinand Blumentritt. With the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution in 1896 and the establishment of the First Philippine Republic in 1899(after the overthrow of Spanish rule by the United States the previous year), Filipinos were fighting a war of independence, substantially ended only after President Emilio Aguinaldo (1899 – 1901) was captured and brought to Malacañan Palace. After being held under house arrest, he dissolved the Republic on April 1, 1901.