Emilio Aguinaldo
January 23, 1899 – March 23, 1901


During the Philippine Revolution, the national flag was flown upside-down to symbolize wartime.

National Seal and Coat of Arms

Election Results

Era First President of the Philippines President of the First Republic
Constitution 1899 Malolos Constitution
Preceded by position established
Succeeded by position abolished
Inauguration January 23, 1899, Barasoain Church, Malolos, Bulacan (aged 29)
Seat of Government Malolos, Bulacan
Vice President None
Prime Minister Apolinario Mabini (January 1-May 7, 1899); Pedro Paterno (May 9, 1899-April 25, 1900)
Chief Justice None
Senate President None
Speaker of the House None
Previous Positions
Executive Local: Cabeza de Barangay, Binakayan, Cavite El Viejo (now Kawit, Cavite)
Provincial: Capitan Municipal, Kawit (1895)
National: President of the Tejeros government (Tejeros Convention) (March 22, 1897-November 2, 1897)
National: President of the Biak-na-Bato Republic (November 1,1897-December 20, 1897)
National: President of the Dictatorial government (May 24,1898 –June 23, 1898)
National: President of the Revolutionary government (June 23, 1898-January 22, 1899)
Legislative None
Judicial None
Others General, Philippine Revolutionary Army
Worked under other Administrations LAUREL as member of Council of State
ROXAS as member of Council of State
QUIRINO as member of Council of State
MAGSAYSAY as member of Council of State
GARCIA as member of Council of State
MACAPAGAL as member of Council of State
Personal Details
Born March 22, 1869, at Kawit, Cavite
Died February 6, 1964, at Veterans Memorial Hospital, Quezon City
Resting Place Aguinaldo Shrine, Kawit, Cavite
Political Parties Magdalo faction, Katipunan (1897) National Socialist Party (1935)
Spouse Hilaria del Rosario (1877-1921) (m. 1896)
Maria Agoncillo (1881-1963) (m. 1930)
Children Carmen Aguinaldo-Melencio
Emilio Aguinaldo Jr.
Maria Aguinaldo-Poblete
Cristina Aguinaldo-Suntay
Miguel Aguinaldo
Education Bachelor of Arts, Colegio de San Juan de Letran (college preparatory) (1880)
Profession Entrepreneur, Soldier, Politician

Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce Leon Ma. Guerrero
Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce
(May 7, 1899-November 13, 1899)
Jose Alejandrino
Minister of Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce
(June 23, 1898-1899)
Department of Public Instruction Bernard Moses
Secretary of Public Instruction
(March 1900-December 31, 1902)
Aguedo Velarde
Secretary of Public Instruction
Department of Treasury Hugo Ilagan
Secretary of Treasury
(May 9, 1899-November 13, 1900)
Mariano Trias
Secretary of Treasury
(July 15, 1898-May 9, 1899)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Apolinario Mabini
Minister of Foreign Affairs
(October 1, 1898-October 30, 1898)
Felipe Buencamino
Minister of Foreign Affairs
(Paterno cabinet)
Ministry of Interior Severino de las Alas
Minister of Interior
(May 7, 1899-November 13, 1899)
Teodoro Sandico
Minister of Interior
(January 21, 1899-May 7, 1899)
Ministry of War and Navy Mariano Trias
Minister of War and Navy
(May 7, 1899–November 13, 1899)
Emiliano Riego de Dios
Secretary of War
(March-November 1897)
Ministry of War and Public Works Baldomero Aguinaldo
Minister of War and Public Works
Ministry of Welfare
(Public Instruction, Public Works, Communications, Agriculture, Industry, and Commerce)
Gracio Gonzaga
Ministry of Welfare
(January 21, 1899-May 7, 1899)
Department of Public Works and Communications Maximo Paterno
Secretary of Public Works and Communications

1935 Presidential Elections
President Aguinaldo contested the 1935 Presidential election against then Senate President Manuel L. Quezon and Supreme Bishop Gregorio Aglipay, founder of the Iglesia Filipina Independiente. Quezon won the elections and became the First President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.