Manuel L. Quezon
First term: November 15, 1935-December 30, 1941
Second term: December 30, 1941-August 1, 1944
(term extended on November 15, 1943)


1919 – 1936
1936 – 1941

From 1941-1945, the national flag was flown upside-down to symbolize wartime.

1941 – 1945

National Coat of Arms





Presidential Flags

Country Data
Election Results

Era Second President of the Philippines
First President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines
Constitution 1935 Constitution
Amended 1935 Constitution
Successor Sergio Osmeña
Inauguration November 15, 1935, Legislative Building, Manila (aged 57)
December 30, 1941, Malinta Tunnel, Corregidor (aged 63)
November 15, 1943, Washington, D.C. (aged 65)
Capital Manila, Philippines (1935-1942)
Shoreham Hotel, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (1942-1944)
Vice-President Sergio Osmeña (November 15, 1935-December 30, 1941; December 30, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Chief Justice Ramon Avanceña (April 1, 1925-December 24, 1941)
Jose Abad Santos (December 24, 1941-May 2, 1942)
Speaker of the National Assembly Gil Montilla (November 25, 1935-December 30, 1938)
Jose Yulo (January 24, 1939-December 30, 1941)

Previous Positions

Executive Provincial: Governor of Tayabas (1906-1907)
Bureaucracy: Provincial fiscal of Mindoro
Bureaucracy: Provincial fiscal of Tayabas
Legislative Local: Municipal Councilor of Tayabas, Province of Tayabas (1906)
Lower House: Member and Majority Floor Leader of the First Philippine Assembly; Chairman of the Committee on Appropriations (October 16, 1907-May 20, 1909)
Lower House: Resident Commissioner to the U.S. Congress (November 23, 1909-October 15, 1916)
Upper House: First President of the Philippine Senate (October 16, 1916-November 15, 1935)
Upper House: Senator for the 5th Senatorial District (October 16, 1916-November 15, 1935)
Judicial None
Others Major, Philippine Army (1898-1901)

Personal Details

Born August 19, 1878
Baler, Tayabas
Died August 1, 1944
Saranac Lake, New York
Resting Place Quezon Memorial Circle, Quezon City
Political Parties Partido Nacionalista (1907-1921)
Partido Colectivista Liberal (1922)
Partido Nacionalista Consolidado (1923-1933)
Partido Nacionalista-Democrata (1934)
Coalition (Partido Nacionalista Democrata and Partido Pro-Independencia Democrata) (1935-1937)
Nacionalista Party (1937-1944)
Parents Lucio Quezon
Maria Dolores Molina
Spouse Aurora Aragon (died 1949)
Children Maria Aurora Quezon
Maria Zenaida Quezon Avanceña
Manuel L. Quezon Jr.
Luisa Corazon Paz Quezon
Alma Mater Secondary education: Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1892)
Bachelor of Arts, Colegio de San Juan de Letran (1894)
Bachelor of Laws, University of Santo Tomas (1903)
Occupation Land Surveyor
Lawyer  (fourth place in the 1903 Bar Exam)


Department of Agriculture and Commerce Rafael Alunan
Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
Department of Public Instruction Jorge Bocobo
Secretary of Public Instruction
Department of Finance Serafin Marabut
Secretary of Finance
Department of Interior Francisco Zulueta
Secretary of the Interior
Department of Justice Teofilo L. Sison
Secretary of Justice
Department of Public Works and Communication Sotero Baluyot
Secretary of Public Works and Communication
Secretary to the President Jorge B. Vargas
Secretary to the President
Department of Health and Public Welfare Jose Fabella
Secretary of Health and Public Welfare
Department of Labor Leon Guinto
Secretary of Labor
Department of National Defense Jorge B. Vargas
Secretary of National Defense
(December 11-22, 1941)
Commander, United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE) Field Marshal Douglas MacArthur
Chief of Staff of the Philippine Army Basilio J. Valdes
U.S. High Commissioner Francis B. Sayre


(December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)

Department of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce Andres Soriano
Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce
(March 26, 1942-July 31, 1944)
Jose Abad Santos
Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and Commerce
(December 26, 1941-March 26, 1942)
Department of National Defense, Public Works and Communications, and Labor Basilio J. Valdes
Secretary of National Defense, Public Works and Communications, and Labor
(December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Department of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare Sergio Osmeña
Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and Public Welfare
(December 24, 1941-August 1, 1944)
Secretary to the President Arturo Rotor
Secretary to the President
(June 13, 1942-August 1, 1944)
Manuel Roxas
Secretary to the President
(December 24, 1941-March 26, 1942)
Department of Information and Public Relations Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Information and Public Relations
(October 1, 1943–August 10, 1944)
Secretary to the Cabinet Manuel Nieto
(May 19, 1944-August 1, 1944)
Auditor-General Jaime Hernandez
(November 15, 1935-August 1, 1944)
Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of Representatives Joaquin Elizalde
(September 29, 1938-August 9, 1944)
Acting President of the Commonwealth Government in Unoccupied Areas Jose Abad Santos
(March 17, 1942)
U.S. High Commissioner Francis B. Sayre
(Resigns July 3, 1942)

In 1935, President Quezon signed Executive Order No. 1, s. 1935, which began the numbering of executive issuances. Wartime issuances were affixed with a “W”. Executive Orders are defined in the 1987 Administrative Code as “acts of the President providing for rules of a general or permanent character in implementation or execution of constitutional or statutory powers.”

  • Executive Orders: 1-251; 1-W – 14-W(total:266)
  • Administrative Orders: 1-44
  • Proclamations: 1-292

  • Population: 14.00 million (1936)
  • Population: 17.00 million (1941)
  • Total exports: P295.36 million (1936)
  • Total exports: P 322.26 million (1941)
  • U.S. Direct Investments in the Philippines: US$ 90.7 million (1940)

Source: A.V.H. Hartendorp, History of Industry and Trade of the Philippines (Manila: American Chamber of Commerce of the Philippines Inc., 1958)

This tab is currently under construction. Please check again soon.

Legislative Acts passed by the legislature established by virtue of the 1935 Constitution were called Commonwealth Acts.

  • Commonwealth Acts:

These infographics were published as part of the Philippine Electoral Almanac, a compendium and handy resource of Philippine national elections from 1935 onwards, by the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office.

1935 Presidential Elections

Under the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Act, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established. On September 16, 1935, the first national presidential election in the Philippines was held, resulting in an overwhelming victory for the Coalition ticket led by Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña.

1935 Vice Presidential Elections

1935 Legislative Elections

By virtue of the 1935 Constitution, legislative power was vested in a unicameral National Assembly.

Of the 98 members elected to the National Assembly in 1935, 87 were from existing representative districts, three were from Mountain Province, and one from each of the eight existing special provinces.

A significant majority of representatives elected (72%) belonged to Quezon’s Partido Nacionalista Democrata (Antis), while 21% belonged to Osmeña’s Partido Pro-Independencia Democrata (Pros). While both factions of the Nacionalista Party coalesced on the national level, they were less united in the National Assembly.

1937 Plebiscite

1938 Legislative Elections

The election of November 8, 1938, was the first and last time that one single party would secure 100 percent of the seats in the legislature, with a reunited Nacionalista Party winning all 98 seats.

1939 Plebiscite

1940 Plebiscite

The unicameral National Assembly was replaced by a bicameral legislature composed of the Senate of the Philippines and the House of Representatives.

In 1941, elections were held for the Presidency and Vice Presidency, as well as for members of both chambers.

1941 Presidential Elections

1941 Vice Presidential Elections

1941 Legislative Elections

The new terms of office for Congress were scheduled to begin on December 30, 1941, but the onset of World War II prevented the elected members from assuming their posts and the legislature of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was dissolved upon the exile of the government of the Philippines.