Ferdinand E. Marcos
December 30, 1965 – February 25, 1986



National Coat of arms



Presidential Seals




Country Data
Election Results

Era Tenth President of the Philippines
Sixth and Last President of the Third Republic
First President of the Fourth Republic
Constitution Amended 1935 Constitution
1973 Constitution
Amended 1973 Constitution
Predecessor Diosdado Macapagal
Successor Corazon C. Aquino
Inauguration December 30, 1965, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 48)
December 30, 1969, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 52)
June 30, 1981, Quirino Grandstand, Manila (aged 64)
February 25, 1986, Malacañan Palace, Manila (aged 69)
Capital Quezon City (1965-1978)
City of Manila (1978-1986)
Vice-President Fernando Lopez
(December 30, 1965-December 30, 1969)
(December 30, 1969-September 23, 1972)
Prime Minister Ferdinand E. Marcos (concurrent capacity as President)
(June 12, 1978-June 30, 1981)
Cesar E.A. Virata
(June 30, 1981-February 25, 1986)
Chief Justice Ramon C. Aquino (November 20, 1985-March 6, 1986)
Felix V. Makasiar (July 25, 1985-November 19, 1985)
Enrique M. Fernando (July 2, 1979-July 24, 1985)
Fred Ruiz Castro (January 5, 1976-April 19, 1979)
Querube C. Makalintal (October 21, 1973-December 22, 1975);
Roberto V. Concepcion (June 17, 1966-April 18, 1973);
Cesar Bengzon (April 28, 1961-May 29, 1966)
Senate President Gil Puyat (January 26, 1967-September 23, 1972)
Arturo M. Tolentino (January 17, 1966-January 26, 1967)
Speaker of the National Assembly Nicanor E. Yñiguez (July 23, 1984-March 25, 1986)
Querube C. Makalintal (June 12, 1978-June 30, 1984)
Speaker of the House Cornelio T. Villareal (April 1, 1971-September 23, 1972)
Jose B. Laurel Jr. (February 2, 1967-April 1, 1971)
Cornelio T. Villareal (January 17, 1966-February 2, 1967)

Previous Positions

Executive None
Legislative Upper House: Senator (1959-1965)
Lower House: Representative, Second District of Ilocos Norte (1949-1959)
Judicial None
Others Military: Major (active service); Colonel (reserve)

Personal Details

Born September 11, 1917
Sarrat, Ilocos Norte
Died September 28, 1989
Resting Place Ilocos Norte
Political Parties Liberal Party (1949-1965)
Nacionalista Party (1965-1978)
Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (1978-1986)
Parents Mariano Marcos
Josefa Quetulio Edralin
Spouse Imelda Trinidad Romualdez
Children Ilocos Governor Maria Imelda Marcos
Senator Ferdinand Marcos Jr.
Irene Marcos-Araneta
Alma Mater Associate in Arts, University of the Philippines
Bachelor of Laws, University of the Philippines
Occupation Lawyer

Ministry of Agriculture and Food Salvador Escudero III
Minister of Agriculture and Food
Department of Agriculture Fernando Lopez
Secretary of Agriculture
Jose Feliciano
Secretary of Agriculture
Benjamin Gozon
Secretary of Agriculture
Jose Locsin
Secretary of Agriculture
Ministry of Budget and Management Alberto Romulo
Minister of Budget and Management
(February 26, 1986-March 8, 19987)
Manuel Alba
Minister of Budget and Management
(January 25, 1981-February 28, 1986)
Jaime Laya
Minister of Budget and Management
(June 12, 1978-January 12, 1981)
Ministry of Education, Culture, and Sports Jaime Laya
Minister of Education, Culture, and Sports
(January 1984-February 1986)
Onofre Cruz
Minister of Education, Culture, and Sports
(July 1979-1984)
Department of Education, Culture, and Sports Juan Manuel
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(April 21, 1971-June 1979)
Onofre Corpuz
Acting Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(December 17, 1967-April 20, 1971)
Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Education, Culture, and Sports
(December 30, 1965-December 16, 1967)
Ministry of Energy Geronimo Velasco
Minister of Energy
Ministry of Natural Resources Carlos G. Dominguez
Minister of Natural Resources
(December 2, 1986-March 9, 1987)
Ernesto M. Maceda
Minister of Natural Resources
(February 26, 1986-December 1, 1986)
Rodolfo P. Del Rosario
Minister of Natural Resources
(July 18, 1984-February 24, 1986)
Teodoro Q. Peña
Minister of Natural Resources
(July 27, 1981-June 30, 1984)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources Jose J. Leido Jr.
Secretary of Environment and Natural Resources
(May 17, 1974-July 26, 1981)
Ministry of Finance Cesar E.A. Virata
Minister of Finance
(June 30, 1981-March 3, 1986)
Department of Finance Cesar E.A. Virata
Secretary of Finance
(February 9, 1970-June 30, 1981)
Eduardo Romualdez
Secretary of Finance
(January 1, 1996-February 4, 1970)
Rufino G. Hechanova
Secretary of Finance
(January 8, 1964-December 13, 1965)
Rodrigo Perez
Secretary of Finance
(August 1, 1962-January 7, 1964)
Fernando Sison
Secretary of Finance
(January 2, 1962-July 31, 1962)
Ministry of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Romulo
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Department of Foreign Affairs Carlos P. Romulo
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Narciso Ramos
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(January 1966-December 1968)
Mauro B. Mendez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(May 1964-December 1965)
Salvador P. Lopez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Emmanuel Pelaez
Secretary of Foreign Affairs
(December 30, 1961-July 1963)
Ministry of Health Jesus C. Azurin
Minister of Health
(July 28, 1981-July 1, 1984)
Department of Health Enrique Garcia
Secretary of Health
(July 24, 1979-June 30, 1981)
Clemente Gatmaitan
Secretary of Health
(January 17, 1973-July 23, 1979)
Amadeo Cruz
Secretary of Health
(August 2, 1968-December 25, 1971)
Paulino Garcia
Secretary of Health
(December 30, 1965-August 1, 1968)
Manuel Cuenco
Secretary of Health
(December 13, 1964-December 29, 1965)
Rodolfo Canos
Secretary of Health
(May 1, 1964-June 20, 1965)
Floro Dabu
Secretary of Health
(July 23, 1965-March 6, 1964)
Francisco Q. Duque Jr.
Secretary of Health
(January 1961-July 22, 1963)
Ministry of Local Government and  Community Development Jose Roño
Minister of Local Government and Community Development
(January 1, 1973-March 31, 1986)
Ministry of Justice Estelito Mendoza
Minister of Justice
(June 30, 1984-February 27, 1986)
Department of Justice Ricardo Puno
Secretary of Justice
(July 28, 1979-June 30, 1984)
Catalino Macaraig Jr.
Secretary of Justice
(January 17, 1979-July 22, 1979)
Vicente Abad Santos
Secretary of Justice
(August 2, 1970-July 16, 1979)
Felix Makasiar
Secretary of Justice
(February 8, 1970-August 1, 1970)
Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of Justice
(December 17, 1968-February 7, 1970)
Claudio Teehankee
Secretary of Justice
(August 3, 1967-December 16, 1968)
Jose Yulo
Secretary of Justice
(January 1, 1966-August 4, 1967)
Salvador I. Marino
Secretary of Justice
(July 9, 1963-December 31, 1965)
Juan R. Liwag
Secretary of Justice
(May 20, 1962-July 7, 1963)
Jose W. Diokno
Secretary of Justice
(January 2, 1962-May 19, 1962)
Ministry of Labor and Employment Blas Ople
Minister of Labor and Employment
Department of Labor Blas Ople
Secretary of Labor
Emilio Espinosa
Secretary of Labor
Ministry of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile
Minister of National Defense
(June 30, 1981-February 26, 1986)
Department of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of National Defense
(January 4, 1972-June 30, 1981)
Ferdinand E. Marcos
Concurrent capacity as President
(August 28, 1971-January 3, 1972)
Juan Ponce Enrile
Secretary of National Defense
(February 9, 1970-August 27, 1971)
Ernesto S. Mata
Secretary of National Defense
(January 21, 1967-February 3, 1970)
Ferdinand E. Marcos
Concurrent capacity as President
(December 31, 1965-January 20, 1967)
Macario Peralta Jr.
Secretary of National Defense
(December 30, 1961-December 30, 1965)
Ministry of Public Works and Highways Jesus Hipolito
Minister of Public Works and Highways
Ministry of Public Works Vicente T. Paterno
Minister of Public Works
Ministry of Transportation and Communication Alfredo I. Juinio
Minister of Transportation and Communication
Ministry of Public Works, Communication, and Transportation Alfredo I. Juinio
Minister of Public Works, Communication, and Transportation
Ministry of Social Services and Development Sylvia P. Montes
Minister of Social Services and Development
Department of Social Services and Development Nathaniel Tablante
Secretary of Social Services and Development
Estefania Aldaba-Lim
Secretary of Social Services and Development
Department of Social Welfare Gregorio Feliciano
Feliciano T. Remotique
Ministry of Human Settlements Imelda R. Marcos
Minister of Human Settlements
Ministry of Tourism Jose D. Aspiras
Minister of Tourism
(May 11, 1973-February 25, 1986)
Ministry of Trade and Industry Roberto V. Ongpin
Minister of Trade and Industry
Department of Commerce and Industry Luis R. Villafuerte Sr.
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Vicente T. Paterno
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Troadio T. Quiazon
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Ernesto M. Maceda
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Leonides Virata
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Marcelo Balatbat
Secretary of Commerce and Industry
Presidential Executive Assistant Juan Tuvera
Executive Secretary
(December 30, 1979-February 22, 1986)
Jacobo Calve
Executive Secretary
(December 8, 1975-December 23, 1979)
Executive Secretary Ponciano Mathay
Executive Secretary
(November 7, 1974-December 7, 1975)
Alejandro Melchor Jr.
Executive Secretary
(February 9, 1970-November 4, 1974)
Ernesto M. Maceda
Executive Secretary
(July 26, 1969-February 7, 1970)
Rafael Salas
Executive Secretary
(January 1, 1966-July 24, 1969)

  • Executive Orders: 1-994
  • Administrative Orders: 1-504
  • Memorandum Orders: 1-832
  • Memorandum Circulars: 1-996
  • Proclamations: 1-995
  • Presidential Decrees: 1-991 (Has full force and effect of law)
  • Letters of Implementation: 1-157
  • Letters of Instruction: 1-995
  • General Orders: 1-157

  • Population: 33.71 million (1967)
  • Population: 37.90 million (1972)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P285,886 million (1966)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P361,791 million (1971)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P381,497 million (1972)
  • Gross Domestic Product: P571,883 million (1985)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 4.75% (1966-1971 average)
  • GDP Growth Rate: 3.43% (1972-185 average)
  • Income Per Capita: P8,932 (1967)
  • Income Per Capita: P9,546 (1971)
  • Income Per Capita: P9,802 (1972)
  • Income Per Capita: P10,524 (1985)
  • Total Exports: P70,254 million (1966)
  • Total Exports: P63,626 million (1971)
  • Total Exports: P71,572 million (1972)
  • Total Exports: P137,341 million (1985)
  • Unemployment Rate: 7.10% (1966)
  • Unemployment Rate: 5.20% (1971)
  • Unemployment Rate: 6.30% (1972)
  • Unemployment Rate: 12.55% (1985)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P3.9 (1966)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P6.44 (1971)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P6.3 (1972)
  • Peso-Dollar Exchange Rate: $1 = P12.55 (1985)

Source: National Statistical Coordination Board, National Accounts of the Philippines, National Statistics Office, Philippine Statistical Yearbook

This tab is currently under construction. Please check again soon.

  • Republic Acts:
  • Batasang Pambansa:
  • Presidential Decrees:

These infographics were published as part of the Philippine Electoral Almanac, a compendium and handy resource of Philippine national elections from 1935 onwards, by the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office.

1965 Presidential Elections
Senate President Ferdinand E. Marcos defeated re-electionist President Diosdado Macapagal with a comfortable 700,000 vote margin.

1965 Vice Presidential Elections

1965 Legislative Elections
Five Nacionalistas, two Liberals, and Senator Lorenzo Tañada of the Nationalist Citizens Party (NCP) won. Overall, the Senate was split between 11 Nacionalistas and 10 Liberals with the two Progressives and one NCP member in caucus with the opposition. The House was won by the Liberals but was soon thereafter under the Nacionalistas.

1967 Legislative Elections

1967 Plebiscite

1969 Presidential Elections

1969 Vice Presidential Elections

1969 Legislative Elections

1971 Constitutional Convention

1971 Legislative Elections
The fallout from the Plaza Miranda bombing resulted in an opposition win in the Senatorial race with six Liberals and two Nacionalistas winning. Despite the electoral rout by the LP, this translated to modest gains in the 24-seat upper chamber for the opposition, with only nine Liberals as opposed to 15 Nacionalistas.

Martial Law
President Marcos issues Proclamation No. 1081, placing the country under Martial Law and paving the way for the abolition of Congress. The Senate and the House of Representatives had adjourned on September 21, 1972. The regular session of 1973, which was meant to resume in January, was preempted by the ratification of the 1973 Constitution.

Click here for more information on Martial Law, published on the Official Gazette.

1973 Plebiscite

1973 Plebiscite

1975 Plebiscite

1976 Plebiscite

Batasang Bayan
President Ferdinand E. Marcos issues Presidential Decree No. 995, creating a legislative advisory council, the Batasang Bayan, a quasi-legislative machinery to normalize the legislative process for the eventual actualization of the 1973 Constitution.

1977 Plebiscite

Interim Batasang Pambansa
In order to fulfill the provisions of the 1973 Constitution on the institution of a parliamentary government, President Ferdinand E. Marcos signs Presidential Decree No. 1296, providing for the election of members of the Interim Batasang Pambansa. The Mambabatas Pambansa, also known as Assemblymen, would be elected per region, via a bloc-voting system.

1981 Plebiscite

1981 Presidential Elections

1981 Plebiscite
In a referendum held with the national elections, the majority voted to hold the barangay elections pursuant to Proclamation No. 2088.

1984 Plebiscite

Regular Batasang Pambansa
In contrast to the Interim Batasang Pambansa, the Assemblymen of the Regular Batasang Pambansa were elected at-large and per province.

1986 Presidential Elections
President Marcos succumbed to international pressure and called for a snap Presidential election. Though Marcos and his running mate former Senator and Assemblyman Arturo Tolentino were proclaimed by the Batasang Pambansa as the winners of the election, a popular revolt installed opposition leaders Corazon C. Aquino and Salvador H. Laurel as President and Vice President, respectively.

1986 Vice Presidential Elections