Manuel Roxas
First term: May 28, 1946 – July 4, 1946
Second term: July 4, 1946 – April 15, 1948


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    Era Fifth President of the Philippines
    Third and last President of the Commonwealth
    First President of the Third Republic
    Constitution Amended 1935 Constitution
    Predecessor Sergio Osmeña
    Successor Elpidio Quirino
    Inauguration May 28, 1946, Legislative Building, Manila (aged 54)
    July 4, 1946, Independence Grandstand, Manila (aged 54)
    Capital Manila
    Vice-President Elpidio Quirino (May 28, 1946-April 17, 1948)
    Chief Justice Manuel V. Moran (July 9, 1945-March 20, 1951)
    Senate President Jose Avelino (May 25, 1946-July 4, 1946; July 5, 1946-February 21, 1949)
    Speaker of the House Eugenio Perez (May 25, 1946-July 4, 1946; July 5, 1946-December 30, 1949)

    Previous Positions

    Executive Provincial: Governor of Capiz (1919-1921)
    Bureaucracy: Chairman, Bigasan ng Bayan (1943-1943)
    Cabinet: Secretary of Finance (1938-1941)
    Cabinet: Secretary to the President (Executive Secretary) (1941-1942)
    National: Chairman, National Economic Council (1938-1941)
    Legislative Local: Municipal Councilor (1917-1919)
    Lower House: Representative of the 1st District of Capiz (1922-1934)
    Lower House: Speaker of the House of Representatives (1922-1933)
    Lower House: Assemblyman representing the 1st District of Capiz, National Assembly (1935-1938)
    Upper House: Senate President (July 9, 1945–May 25, 1946)
    Upper House: Senator (July 9, 1945–May 25, 1946)
    Judicial Secretary and law clerk to Chief Justice Cayetano Arellano
    Others Delegate, 1935 Constitutional Convention
    Member, 1943 Preparatory Commission on Philippine Independence
    Military: Brigadier General

    Personal Details

    Born January 1, 1892
    Capiz (now Roxas City), Capiz
    Died April 15, 1948
    Clark Air Base, Pampanga
    Resting Place Manila North Cemetery, Manila
    Political Parties Partido Colectivista Liberal (1922)
    Partido Nacionalista Consolidado (1923-1933)
    Partido Nacionalista (“Pro”) (1934)
    Nacionalista Coalition (Coalition Party) (1935-1937)
    Partido Nacionalista (1937-1941)
    Nacionalista Party (1945-1946)
    Partido Nacionalista-Liberal Wing (1946)
    Liberal Party (1946-1948)
    Parents Gerardo Roxas Sr.
    Rosario Acuña
    Spouse Trinidad de Leon
    Children Senator Gerardo “Gerry” Roxas
    Ruby R. Roxas
    Alma Mater Manila High School (1909)
    Bachelor of Laws, University of the Philippines (1913)
    Occupation Lawyer
    Law professor

    Department of Agriculture and Commerce Mariano Garchitorena
    Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce
    (May 28, 1946-September 1948)
    Department of Public Instruction Manuel V. Gallego
    Secretary of Public Instruction
    (May 28, 1946-September 20, 1948)
    Department of Finance Miguel Cuaderno
    Secretary of Finance
    (November 23, 1946-January 2, 1949)
    Elpidio Quirino
    Secretary of Finance
    (September 16, 1946-January 6, 1950)
    Department of Foreign Affairs Elpidio Quirino
    Secretary of Foreign Affairs
    (July 5, 1946–May 1950)
    Department of Health Antonio C. Villarama
    Secretary of Health
    (May 28, 1946–April 17, 1948)
    Department of Interior Jose Zulueta
    Secretary of the Interior
    (May 28, 1946–1948)
    Department of Justice Roman Ozaeta
    Secretary of Justice
    (May 29, 1946-September 17, 1948)
    Department of Labor and Employment Pedro Magsalin
    Secretary of Labor and Employment
    (May 28, 1946-1948)
    Department of National Defense Ruperto K. Kangleon
    Secretary of National Defense
    (May 28, 1946-April 17, 1948)
    Department of Public Works and Communication Ricardo Nepomuceno
    Secretary of Public Works and Communication
    (May 28, 1946-1949)
    Social Welfare Commission Antonio Villarama
    Secretary of Social Welfare
    Asuncion A. Perez
    Commissioner of Social Welfare
    (October 27, 1946)
    Chief of the Executive Office Nicanor Roxas
    Chief of the Executive Office
    (September 10, 1947-February 6, 1948)
    Emilio Abello
    Chief of the Executive Office
    (May 30, 1946-September 3, 1947)
    Executive Secretary Emilio Abello
    Executive Secretary
    (February 26, 1948-March 30, 1948)
  • The Executive Orders issued by President Roxas started with Executive Order No. 110, continuing the numbering of President Sergio Osmeña. In July 4, 1946, with the inauguration of the Third Republic of the Philippines, the number of the issuances was reset with Executive Order No. 1, s. 1946. He issued a total of 129 Executive Orders.

    • Executive Orders: 110–111; 1–127
    • Administrative Orders: 1–50
    • Proclamations: 1–60
    • Population: 19.23 million (1948)
    • Gross Domestic Product: P85,269 million (1947)
    • GDP Growth Rate: 39.5% (1946-1947 average)
    • Income Per Capita: P4,434 (1947)
    • Total Exports: P24,824 million (1947)

    Source: National Statistics Office

  • It was under his administration that the legislation of Republic Acts began. President Roxas signed a total of 421 Republic Acts.

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    • Republic Acts:
  • These infographics were published as part of the Philippine Electoral Almanac, a compendium and handy resource of Philippine national elections from 1935 onwards, by the Presidential Communications Development and Strategic Planning Office.

    1946 Presidential Elections

    1946 Vice Presidential Elections

    1946 Legislative Elections

    The Second Congress of the Commonwealth convened on May 25, 1946; however, it would only last until July 4, 1946, with the inauguration of the Third Republic of the Philippines. Members of both Houses of Congress thus formed the First Congress of the Republic of the Philippines.

    1947 Plebiscite

    In a plebiscite in 1947, U.S. citizens were granted the right to utilize Philippine natural resources – however, it was later revoked.

    1947 Senate Midterm Elections

    Elections were held on November 11, 1947 to fill the 8 vacant seats in the Philippine Senate.